Monday, October 3, 2016

The Need for Spectrum Analyzers and Calibration

Working in the field for service or repair of electrical systems or devices makes it imperative to understand and analyze the electrical signals that are transmitted by the system or device. Analyzing the properties of the signal helps the technician to understand the performance and process protocols that will answer troubled issues. Allowing the signal to pass through a passive receiver that displays the signal helps in the understanding the signal characteristics. This receiver is termed as the spectrum analyzer. The raw signal displays voltage, wave shape, power, and frequency and period information.
Spectrum analyzers can interpret signals such as:

•    voice
•    data
•    sound
•    power

In simple terms any signal depending on the application can be understood and the way it behaves gives the technician background information. A basic spectrum analyzer is the GW INSTEK GSP 810 model that is digitally synthesized, displays RF (radio frequency) measurements up to 1 GHz (gigahertz). Measuring the quality of distortion with respect to:

•    modulation
•    distortion
•    noise

And understanding the spectral characteristic of communications signals is critical where bandwidth is a scarce resource. Measuring distortion is important for communication applications. Along with a spectrum analyzer use of a digital clamp meter gives the technician an all-round capability to check basic electrical parameters of voltage, current and resistance of the power source. Fluke digital clamp meters are the ideal adjunct for such applications.

Tridinamika in Indonesia is a reputed and trusted source for test and measuring equipment. They also provide the service of calibration as a complementing adjunct to their business. Thermometer calibration services along with certification ensure that the equipment is performing within specified parameters.

Thursday, July 21, 2016

Megger Improves Insulation Testing With Feature Rich Testers

Commercial testing of installations mandates the use of insulation resistant tester to identify efficiencies as well as deficiencies in the electrical system. The certification agency observes these practices before certifying that installation is per regulations. When such best practices are followed the risk of short circuits and potential fire hazards is completely negated. More often than not, both the contractor and the certifying agency falling short in these practices lead to accidents and avoidable disasters.Insulation testing by a properly designed tester should exhibit sharp voltage rise and retain that voltage through several higher resistances.

Megger is a renowned name in test and measurement equipment manufacturing with research and manufacturing facilities in United States of America, Britain, Germany and Sweden. Megger equipment's are used in telecommunications, electric power and building wiring industries. Megger has recently announced the introduction of enhanced Megger insulation testers and continuity testers. They are CAT IV compliant and rated to 600 volts operation. The main feature of this tester is the variable voltage from 10 V to 1000 V with incremented steps that allow tight control of test voltages.

The Megger insulation tester is ideally suited for use in motor testing, cable testing and major electrical installations. Other applications include avionics, automotive and building maintenance. User safety is the highest rating accorded for this device due to its use in high voltage environments. For safety, the device features live circuit detection as well as protection. Some of the Megger models are equipped with Bluetooth data transfer capability as well as data storage memory.

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Understanding Digital Oscilloscopes

Detecting the integrity of electronic circuits is the main function of oscilloscopes. For example, a voltage signal may show that circuit is oscillating while a voltmeter reading may show a markedly different voltage.An absent signal trace between connected electronic instruments like an amplifier and or mixer will help determine whether the faulty signal preceding the equipment needs more checking. The oscilloscope can detect faults right down to the component stage.

Tektronix oscilloscope

Primarily an oscilloscope's basic function is to provide a graph of voltage signal over time. PWM (pulse width modulation) duty cycle as well as clock frequency signal’s rise and fall times measurements are possible using this instrument. The Tektronix oscilloscope is perhaps the most favored instrument. The controls are easy to use. To start a Tektronix oscilloscope pressing the function generator and selecting the function will form the first step for any measurements. The inputs derived from the probes gives a real time changes in signals over time. The representation of Y-axis denotes the voltage (as an example) and X-axis represents the time function. Digital oscilloscopes samples wave forms and using analog to digital circuitry converts the voltage into a digital format. Modern oscilloscopes can send digital data to a PC for later viewing.

This testing instrument also measures the frequency and amplitude of an oscillating signal. It also shows the DC (direct current) voltage or AC (alternating current) voltage in a signal. A flat horizontal line in the waveform indicates that there is no voltage change in the signal. Change in the height of the waveform indicates that voltage fluctuation has taken place.

Friday, July 15, 2016

Particle Counters to Be A Way of Life

The importance of particle detectors in present day environment is becoming more due to increased pollution. Cities are reporting higher readings of hazardous hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. Example of Beijing shutting down during Dec 2015 is a first for any city in the world. In Jan 2016, Beijing announced closing down more than 2500 polluting industrial firms for smog that is engulfing China's capital.

Another example of New Delhi the capital city of India has tried out for two week odd and even numbered traffic policy for vehicles. The level of pollution in New Delhi has reached alarming proportions. The policies by the respective governments are based on measurements read by particle counters.Numerous study papers have correlated association between cardio-respiratory issues and air quality in Beijing urban areas. [Ref: Health effects of particle pollution in Beijing, China (ongoing)].

Particle counters are standard and mandatory test instruments on space missions. For example, Cassini (launched in 2004) is presently orbiting Saturn. The spacecraft is maneuvering closer to Saturn's poles to study the gravity and magnetic fields. On board Cassini is a particle detector that will sample icy ring (of Saturn's) particles that is being pulled into the atmosphere of Saturn. All space missions to Mars have particle detectors and there are teams in NASA and other space organizations studying this data. An interested entrepreneur is Elon Musk (founder of SpaceX, Tesla and Gigabit Solar) whose life's mission is to set up a colony on Mars. 

From the brief description in the above paragraphs, we can conclude that it will only get worse. It will not be surprising in the next five years to see particle detectors as fixtures in EV (electric vehicles) that will analyze outside air quality.

Friday, May 27, 2016

Measuring the Flow of Liquids and Economic Growth

In the domain of fluid flow measuring instruments Katronic ultrasonic flow meters command pride of place among others. Established in Britain in 1996 as a distributor of process measuring instruments the company quickly shifted into manufacturing and very soon became a force in clamp-on flow meters. They have not looked back and maintained their supremacy in ultrasonic flow meters that gives their brand instant name recognition and trust among customers.

Ultrasonic flow meter principle

Building on Katronic's core belief that their flow meters should be simple as well as the installation should be straightforward and easy to operate their design has incorporated into each and every Katronic clamp-on flow meter an intuitive menu, instrument setup wizard and the patented Audible Sensor Positioning Assistant, which makes it very easy to use clamp-on ultrasonic flow meters. This link provides a quick glimpse of Katronic's installation. 

Katronic ultrasonic flow meters can measure flow of liquids on large diameter pipes of all standard materials and are used for process liquids from pure water to chemicals and effluents like waste water. The Katronic flow meters work on the transit time ultrasonic principle. Two matching transducers on the external surface of the pipe are mounted.. The transducers generate ultrasonic pulses. These signals travel through the pipe wall and liquid medium from one sensor to the other both with and against the direction of flow.

The principle is that sound waves travelling with the flow will move faster than those travelling against it. The difference in the transit time of these signals is directly proportional to the flow velocity of the liquid and therefore flow values can be calculated.

Tridinamika and Katronic

Tridinamika is the authorized distributor of the world's best brands in ultrasonic flow meters. They represent among others GE, Primayer, Katronic and Fluke brands. Tridinamika was founded in 2002 in Indonesia. Committed to building a service organization based on strong technical foundation and values they have set themselves on the right path by achieving the status of Indonesia's premier test and measurement supplier

Tridinamika is at the forefront of Indonesia's economic surge. As the GDP (gross domestic product) of Indonesia is on an upward trajectory the emphasis of oil and petrochemical industries as well as mining is leading the way. They have a well-trained human resources team that provide the necessary technical skills for a smooth sales and service operation.

Tridinamika's reach in the industries of Water Supply, Wastewater treatment plants, Manufacturing, Aviation, Aerospace, Shipbuilding, Oil & Gas, Power Generation, Office and Residential Building Services, Pharmaceutical, Process Industries, Petrochemical, Semiconductor, Food & Beverages has helped Indonesia's growth story. Katronic flow meters hold the latest version of ISO 9001: 2008 and the company is a respected member of the Institute of Measurement and Control, and the British Standards Institution (BSI)

Monday, May 23, 2016

Understanding Frequency Counters

Frequency counters and timers can be used for measuring many signals like

  • Digital logic signals
  • RF (radio frequencies)
  • Microwaves. 

Counter technology has evolved so that these frequency counters and timers are able to measure time intervals as well as frequency. Time interval is an inverse function of frequency that allows digital processing technology to measure.

How frequency counters work?

The number of events occurring within a specific period of time is counted. The preset (specific) period is called the gate time and after every accumulation is transferred to a display the counter is reset to zero.A clock oscillator is used that allows the resolution of the measurement. This can be improved if the number of cycles is counted over a set period of time rather than counting the cycles for a set time. The internal oscillator is referred to as the time base and this needs calibration. The stability of time base is directly proportional to the accuracy of the frequency counter.

When using a frequency counter, it is necessary to select the time base interval. Generally options of 0.1s, 1s, 10s are the most common. These refer to the length of time over which the frequency counter gate is open and incoming pulses are counted. Thus, for a gate time of 1 second, 1 000 000 pulses will be counted for a 1 MHz (mega hertz) signal or if five pulses are counted, with a gate time of a second, then the frequency is 5Hz (hertz). Hertz is the frequency unit in the International system of units. It is named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 - 1894) the German scientist who proved the theory of electromagnetic waves.

The Tektronix FCA3000 and FCA3100 Frequency Counter Series are most commonly used as these instruments combine many features and several functions.

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Elements of Ultrasonic Flow meters

Sound waves are organized mechanical vibrations traveling through a medium, which may be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. These waves will travel through a given medium at a specific speed or velocity, in a predictable direction, and when they encounter a boundary with a different medium they will be reflected or transmitted according to simple rules. This is the principle of physics that underlies ultrasonic flow measurement in fluids or gases. 

All sound waves oscillate at a specific frequency, or number of vibrations or cycles per second, which we experience as pitch in the familiar range of audible sound. Human hearing extends to a maximum frequency of about 20,000 cycles per second (20 KHz), while the majority of ultrasonic applications utilize frequencies between 25,000 and 10,000,000 cycles per second (2 KHz to 10 MHz). At frequencies in the megahertz range, sound energy does not travel efficiently through air or other gasses, but it travels freely through most liquids and common engineering materials. 

The speed of a sound wave varies depending on the medium through which it is traveling, affected by the medium's density and elastic properties. Different types of sound waves will travel at different velocities. 

Ultrasonic Transducers in ultrasonic flow meters

A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Ultrasonic transducers convert electrical energy into high frequency sound energy and vice versa. A pair of transducers transmits sound waves through a medium and the time taken for the travel with the flow of the liquid and the time taken against the flow determines the velocity and other measurements.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Air Quality Monitoring - TRIDINAMIKA

The sale of particle counters will witness an upward spike considering the uncontrolled wild forest fire in Fort McMurry, Alberta in Canada. Huge tracts of forests are causing untold havoc as more than 100,000 residents have been evacuated as their homes have been consumed in the advancing fire. There is a danger that oil facilities in Alberta which are in the path of the fire is in danger. It is predicted that the wind will take the smoke and debris in the air as far as Florida.

The only way to monitor the air quality is employing particle counters in determining the state of the air for health as well as environmental hygiene is concerned. Particle sizes from 0.1 to 100 micrometers can be detected.

A particle counter counts the number of particles. The methodologies used are by 

1. Light scattering (for smaller sized particles)
2. Light blocking
3. Direct Imaging

1. Light scattering:  the amount of light that is redirected by a particle when subjected to a light passing through it in a given area. The redirection is called light scattering. This technique is also utilized in monitoring ultra pure water in semiconductor fabrication.

2. Light blocking method is used to find contaminants in hydraulic fluid.

3. Direct imaging technique is used in detecting particles when a cell is illuminated by laser where particles are passing the cell.

 A typical particle counter use is maintaining a clean room; continuous monitoring by an array of sensors and connected to a remote facility monitoring system with programmable logic controllers can immediately signal when the air quality of the given area crosses a predetermined threshold. Hand held particle counters are being increasingly used in monitoring indoor office and school environments that are stressed. They are going to be particularly useful in North America at the present time.

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Laboratory Tool Suppliers in Indonesia

Indonesia is on a huge growth path in South East Asia. They are the emerging tigers with a brisk economy. Riding this boom is the mining and petroleum sector followed by massive investments in the food and beverage industries. Other industries picking up steam as witnessed by FDI (foreign direct investment) is chemicals. Indonesia has managed this feat despite performing poorly in the late 1990s. Prudent fiscal management and proper utilization of the country’s natural resources has propelled Indonesia to the position they are in. They are the 8th largest economy in the world with a GDP (gross domestic product) of about 2.5 trillion dollars.

These industries have critical applications and processes that cannot be stopped. Constant monitoring of equipment and processes is a must to keep the wheels of industry moving on a growth path. Test and measuring equipment is a key industry that is playing a vital role. Tridinamika is a leading alat laboratrium supplier and has attained the leading status due to a number of factors. They follow the mantra of spirit of excellence along with

range of technical services
well trained technical staff
expertise in calibrator devices 
representing world class brands 

Tridinamika distributes products of some of the best manufactured brands in the world. To name a few

Siglent and Tektronix are among a host of other famous brands in the test and measurement domain.

Starting in 2002 Tridinamika is keeping pace with Indonesia's rise as a global player.

Friday, April 22, 2016

Importance of Flow Meters

Ultrasonic flow meters are the most essential tool in the arsenal of utility companies supplying gas and water. The reasons are obvious. Harnessing the properties of Christian Doppler (1803-1853, Austrian physicist and mathematician, inventor of Doppler Effect) as one of the principles in measuring exact flow of resources to consumers and billing them so that there is no loss of revenue is a matter of technical magic. Earlier mechanical meters were employed in measuring flow. Because of moving parts these mechanical devices were subject to wear and tear and over time either showed erroneous measurements leading to calibration of the meters on a regular basis. This led to costly downtime.

Ultrasonic flow meters have zero moving parts. The use of electronics (transducers to be precise) has negated this aspect of maintenance. While housed in protective casings the transducers are lowered in the materials like gas and liquids and measurements taken that are accurate. Doppler principle of time of flight is the standard adopted.

The use of handheld clamp-on flow meters has revolutionized measurement of hot water and cold water usage in building applications. LEEDS (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification is now mandatory for green buildings and ultrasonic flow meters are standard equipment.

Tridinamika in Indonesia is a highly rated and trusted supplier of some of the best brands in the world. Apart from a well-organized distribution platform Tridinamika has established a technical team to offer best-in-class support. Since 2002 Tridinamika has been actively engaging the industry in providing world class test and measurement products in Indonesia.